Endangered Mammals II

Endangered mammals need to rely on the good will of humans for help. The Endangered Species Act (ESA), signed into law in the 1970’s, was to preserve, protect and recover key domestic species. Unfortunately the law of the Endangered Species Act are failing to achieve its primary purpose of species recovery and instead has become a obstructive tool for litigation that drains resources away from real recovery efforts. The Obama Administration’s Department of the Interior (DOI) announced in 2011 that it had negotiated settlements, behind closed-doors, with two litigious environmental organizations. However, the DOI settlements raise serious questions about the Obama Administration’s scope of authority and lack of transparency on the Endangered Species Act.

Jump ahead to 2021 for an update:
Thank goodness that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service have proposed rules to rescind two Trump-era critical habitat regulations and ax others that deliberately undermined the Endangered Species Act. The Trump administration launched nothing short of a full-out assault on the ESA by adopting package after package of regulations that hamstrung the federal government’s ability to conserve and recover vulnerable species and their habitat. We are now waiting to see these rules are finalized by the Biden administration. They will restore the definition of “habitat” and regulations that govern critical habitat exclusions. Critical habitat is vital to the conservation of endangered or threatened species. Those of us who are involved with helping save endangered species applaud the Biden administration for taking this action. We will continue to press the administration to roll back previous actions that weaken vital protections for endangered and threatened species.

What the Trump administration did by making it more difficult to grant and maintain protections for species facing extinction and creating carve-outs catering to both state and special interests that privileged profits and economic development over the survival of imperiled wildlife resulted in one of my colleagues to turn to excessive drinking. His alcohol use was so concerning to several of us that we decided to do an intervention. Fortunately I knew about a new approach to helping people with AUD that didn’t involve a residential treatment program or AA and their total abstinence philosophy. At check https://lifebac.com/ where their philosophy is that the individual can change his/her relationship with alcohol via pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. My colleague found the means by combining the medication (baclofen) to remove alcohol cravings and psychotherapy tools to break his drinking habit loop. I saw the success for this LifeBac program with my uncle and felt it was worth an intervention attempt with my colleague. I am happy to report he no longer drinks excessively. Perhaps it was a combination of the LifeBac approach as well as the Biden administration for taking this essential step to restore protections for species facing extinction around the globe. As the Biden Administration works to finalize its new policies, I am hoping that its agencies will act swiftly and boldly to eliminate the dangerous regulatory changes that stripped animals of the strong protections they deserve.

Canada lynx Lynx canadensis U.S. (AK, CO, ID, ME, MI, MN, MT, NH, NY, OR, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY), Canada
Spanish lynx Felis pardina Spain, Portugal
Formosan Rock Macaque Macaca cyclopis Taiwan
Japanese Macaque Macaca fuscata Japan (Shikoku, Kyushu and Honshū Islands)
Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus India
Stump-tailed Macaque Macaca arctoides India (Assam) to southern China
Toque Macaque Macaca sinica Sri Lanka
Amazonian Manatee Trichechus inunguis South America (Amazon R. basin)
West African manatee Trichechus senegalensis West Coast of Africa from Senegal River to Cuanza River
West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus U.S. (southeastern), Caribbean Sea, South America
Mandrill Mandrillus sphinx Equatorial West Africa
Tana River Mangabey Cercocebus galeritus Kenya
Collared Mangabey Cercocebus torquatus Senegal to Ghana; Nigeria to Gabon
Margay Leopardus (Felis) wiedii U.S. (TX), Central and South America
Chiltan Markhor (wild goat) Capra falconeri (aegragrus) chiltanensis Chiltan Range of west-central Pakistan
Kabul markhor Capra falconeri megaceros Afghanistan, Pakistan
Straight-horned Markhor Capra falconeri jerdoni Afghanistan, Pakistan
Buffy-headed Marmoset Callithrix (Callithrix) flaviceps Brazil
Cottontop Tamarin Saguinus oedipus Costa Rica to Colombia
Goeldi’s Marmoset Callimico goeldii Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
Buffy-tufted Marmoset Callithrix (Callithrix) aurita Brazil
Vancouver Island Marmot Marmota vancouverensis Canada (Vancouver Island)
Eastern jerboa marsupial Antechinomys laniger Australia
Large desert marsupial-mouse Sminthopsis psammophila Australia
Long-tailed marsupial-mouse Sminthopsis longicaudata Australia
Formosan yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula chrysospila Taiwan
Black Colobus Colobus satanas Equatorial Guinea, People’s Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Gabon
Guatemalan Black Howler Alouatta pigra Mexico, Guatemala, Belize
Diana Monkey Cercopithecus diana Coastal West Africa
Gray Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi China
L’Hoest’s Monkey Cercopithecus lhoesti Upper eastern Congo River Basin, Cameroon
Mantled Howler Alouatta palliata Mexico to South America
Preuss’s Red Colobus Piliocolobus preussi Cameroon
Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus Borneo
Central American Squirrel Monkey Saimiri oerstedii Costa Rica, Panama
White-throated Guenon Cercopithecus erythrogaster Western Nigeria
Red-eared Guenon Cercopithecus erythrotis Nigeria, Cameroon, Fernando Po
Golden Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus roxellana China
Geoffroy’s Spider Monkey Ateles geoffroyi Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Tana River Red Colobus Piliocolobus rufomitratus Kenya
Tonkin Snub-nosed Langur Rhinopithecus avunculus Vietnam
Southern Muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides Brazil
Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey Oreonax flavicauda Andes of northern Peru
Black Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus bieti China
Zanzibar Red Colobus Piliocolobus kirkii Tanzania
Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra U.S. (CA)
Alabama beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus ammobates U.S. (AL)
Anastasia Island beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus phasma U.S. (Florida)
Australian native mouse Notomys aquilo Australia
Australian native mouse Zyzomys pedunculatus Australia
Choctawhatchee Beach Mouse Peromyscus polionotus allophrys U.S. (Florida)
Field’s mouse Pseudomys fieldi Australia
Gould’s mouse Pseudomys gouldii Australia
Key Largo cotton mouse Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola U.S. (Florida)
New Holland Mouse Pseudomys novaehollandiae Australia
Pacific pocket mouse Perognathus longimembris pacificus U.S. (CA)
Perdido Key Beach Mouse Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis U.S. (AL, Florida)
Preble’s meadow jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius preblei U.S. (CO, WY)
Salt marsh harvest mouse Reithrodontomys raviventris U.S. (CA)
Shark Bay Mouse Pseudomys praeconis Australia
Shortridge’s Mouse Pseudomys shortridgei Australia
Smoky Mouse Pseudomys fumeus Australia
Southeastern beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris U.S. (Florida)
St. Andrew beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis U.S. (Florida)
Western Mouse Pseudomys occidentalis Australia
Fea’s muntjac Muntiacus feae Northern Thailand, Burma
Eastern native-cat Dasyurus viverrinus Australia
Numbat Myrmecobius fasciatus Australia
Ocelot Leopardus (Felis) pardalis U.S. (AZ, TX) to Central and South America
Bornean Orangutan Pongo pygmaeus Borneo, Sumatra
Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx Arabian Peninsula
Cameroon Clawless Otter Aonyx congicus (congica) microdon Cameroon, Nigeria
Giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis South America
Long-tailed otter Lontra (Lutra) longicaudis (incl. platensis) South America
Marine otter Lontra (Lutra) felina Peru south to Straits of Magellan
Southern river otter Lontra (Lutra) provocax Chile, Argentina
Southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis West Coast, U.S. (CA, OR, WA) south to Mexico (Baja California)
Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca China
Temnick’s ground pangolin Manis temminckii Africa
Florida panther Puma concolor coryi U.S. (LA and AR east to SC and Florida)
Little planigale Planigale ingrami subtilissima Australia
Southern planigale Planigale tenuirostris Australia
Thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus Brazil
Leadbeater’s possum Gymnobelideus leadbeateri Australia
Mountain Pygmy Possum Burramys parvus Australia
Scaly-tailed Possum Wyulda squamicaudata Australia
Mexican Prairie Dog Cynomys mexicanus Mexico
Utah prairie dog Cynomys parvidens U.S. (UT)
Peninsular pronghorn Antilocapra americana peninsularis Mexico (Baja California)
Sonoran pronghorn Antilocapra americana sonoriensis U.S. (AZ), Mexico
Pudú Pudu pudu Southern South America
Eastern Cougar Puma concolor couguar Eastern North America
Cougar (mountain lion) Puma concolor (all subsp. except coryi) Canada to South America
Costa Rican Cougar Puma concolor costaricensis Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica
Quokka Setonix brachyurus Australia
Lower Keys Marsh Rabbit Sylvilagus palustris hefneri U.S. (Florida)
Pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis U.S. (CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY)
Riparian Brush Rabbit Sylvilagus bachmani riparius U.S. (CA)
Ryukyu Rabbit Pentalagus furnessi Japan (Ryukyu Islands)
Volcano rabbit Romerolagus diazi Mexico
False Water Rat Xeromys myoides Australia
Stick-nest rat Leporillus conditor Australia
Brush-tailed rat-kangaroo Bettongia penicillata Australia
Desert Rat-kangaroo (plain) Caloprymnus campestris Australia
Gaimard’s rat-kangaroo Bettongia gaimardi Australia
Lesueur’s rat-kangaroo Bettongia lesueur Australia
Queensland rat-kangaroo Bettongia tropica Australia
Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Sub-Saharan Africa
Great Indian rhinoceros rhinoceros unicornis India, Nepal
Javan rhinoceros rhinoceros sondaicus Indonesia, Indochina, Burma, Thailand, Sikkim, Bangladesh, Malaysia
Northern white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum cottoni Zaire, Sudan, Uganda, Central African Republic
Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Bangladesh to Vietnam to Indonesia (Borneo)
Marsh rice rat (Florida subspecies) Oryzomys palustris natator U.S. (Florida)
Mongolian saiga (antelope) Saiga tatarica mongolica Mongolia
Black Bearded Saki Chiropotes satanas Brazil
White-nosed Saki Chiropotes albinasus Brazil
Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico
Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi U.S. (Farallon Islands of CA) south to Mexico (Islas Revillagigedo)
Hawaiian monk seal Monachus schauinslandi U.S. (HI)
Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus Mediterranean, Northwest African Coast and Black Sea
Saimaa Seal Phoca hispida saimensis Finland (Lake Saimaa)
Steller sea-lion Eumetopias jubatus U.S. (AK, CA, OR, WA), Canada, Russia; North Pacific Ocean
Seledang Bos gaurus Bangladesh, Southeast Asia, India
serow Naemorhedus (Capricornis) sumatraensis East Asia, Sumatra
Barbary serval Leptailurus (Felis) serval constantina Algeria
Shapo Ovis vignei vignei Kashmir
Bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis U.S. (Western conterminous states), Canada (southwestern), Mexico (northern)
Bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis californiana U.S. (Western conterminous states), Canada (southwestern), Mexico (northern)
Shou Cervus elaphus wallichi Tibet, Bhutan
Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew Sorex ornatus relictus U.S. (CA)
Siamang Symphalangus syndactylus Malaysia, Indonesia
Sifakas Propithecus spp. Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)
Brazilian three-toed sloth Bradypus torquatus Brazil
Cuban Solenodon Solenodon cubanus Cuba
Haitian solenodon Solenodon paradoxus Dominican Republic, Haiti
Carolina northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus U.S. (NC, TN)
Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel Sciurus niger cinereus U.S. (Delmarva Peninsula to southeastern PA)
Mount Graham Red Squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis U.S. (AZ)
Northern Idaho ground squirrel Spermophilus brunneus brunneus U.S. (ID)
Virginia northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus U.S. (VA, WV)
Barbary stag Cervus elaphus barbarus Tunisia, Algeria
Kashmir stag Cervus elaphus hanglu Kashmir
Zanzibar suni Neotragus moschatus moschatus Zanzibar (and nearby islands)
Arabian tahr Hemitragus jayakari Oman
Tamaraw Bubalus mindorensis Philippines
Lion tamarins Leontopithecus spp. Brazil
Pied Tamarin Saguinus bicolor Brazil
White-footed Tamarin Saguinus leucopus Colombia
Asian tapir tapirus indicus Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand
Central American tapir tapirus bairdii Southern Mexico to Colombia and Ecuador
Mountain Tapir tapirus pinchaque Colombia, Ecuador and possibly Peru and Venezuela
South American tapir (Brazilian) tapirus terrestris Colombia and Venezuela south to Paraguay and Argentina
Philippine Tarsier Tarsius syrichta Philippines
Tiger Panthera tigris Temperate and tropical Asia
Tasmanian tiger Thylacinus cynocephalus Australia
Uakari (all species) Cacajao spp. Peru, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela
Urial Ovis musimon ophion Cyprus
Vicuna Vicugna vicugna South America (Andes)
Amargosa vole Microtus californicus scirpensis U.S. (CA)
Florida salt marsh vole Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli U.S. (Florida)
Hualapai Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus hualpaiensis U.S. (AZ)
Banded hare wallaby Lagostrophus fasciatus Australia
Brindled nail-tailed wallaby Onychogalea fraenata Australia
Crescent nail-tailed wallaby Onychogalea lunata Australia
Parma wallaby Macropus parma Australia
Western hare wallaby Lagorchestes hirsutus Australia
Yellow-footed Rock-wallaby Petrogale xanthopus Australia
Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus Oceanic
Bowhead Whale Balaena mysticetus Oceanic (north latitudes only)
Fin Whale Balaenoptera physalus Oceanic
Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus North Pacific Ocean—coastal and Bering Sea, formerly North Atlantic Ocean
Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae Oceanic
Right whales Eualaena spp. Oceanic
Sei Whale Balaenoptera borealis Oceanic
Sperm Whale Physeter macrocephalus Oceanic
Gray Wolf Canis lupus Holarctic
Maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
Red wolf Canis rufus U.S. (SE U.S., west to central TX)
Queensland hairy-nosed wombat (incl. Barnard’s) Lasiorhinus krefftii (formerly L. barnardi and L. gillespiei) Australia
Key Largo Woodrat Neotoma floridana smalli U.S. (Florida)
Riparian woodrat (San Joaquin Valley) Neotoma fuscipes riparia U.S. (CA)
Wild Yak Bos mutus (grunniens m.) China (Tibet), India
Grevy’s zebra Equus grevyi Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia
Hartmann’s mountain zebra Equus zebra hartmannae Namibia, Angola
Mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra South Africa

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