Endangered Mammals

Unlike cubic zirconia, that synthetic gemstone found in most fake engagement rings, endangered mammals can not be cloned when they slowly reach the critical point of no return. In 1937, German mineralogists M. V. Stackelberg and K. Chudoba discovered naturally occurring cubic zirconia which turned out to be extremely rare. Scientists, seeking a diamond substitutes for use in lasers and other optical applications, eventually discovered how to create a synthetic cubic zirconia for commercial production uses. Forty years later it became the #1 synthetic cubic for mass-production in the jewelry marketplace. Voila, fake engagement rings. The use of “fake” really does a disservice to any jewelry made from cubic zirconia since it really does imitate diamonds, and certainly offers a viable alternative to that costly natural stone. Just do a search online for cubic zirconia rings and you will see what I mean.

Lamentably endangered species need to rely on the good will of humans for help to prolong their species and it is not through cloning, but by laws protecting their habitats and wanton hunting. The Endangered Species Act (ESA), signed into law in the 1970’s, was to preserve, protect and recover key domestic species.

Unfortunately the laws of the Endangered Species Act are failing to achieve its primary purpose of species recovery. Instead he Endangered Species Act has become a obstructive tool for litigation that drains resources away from real protection and recovery efforts. All countries need to enact some type of Endangered Species Acts that have real teeth. For most of the animals listed here, it is too little and too late for them.

Lowland Anoa Bubalus depressicornis Indonesia
Mountain Anoa Bubalus quarlesi Indonesia
Giant Sable Antelope Hippotragus niger variani Angola
Argali Ovis ammon Eurasia
Giant Armadillo Priodontes maximus South America
Pink Fairy Armadillo Chlamyphorus truncatus Argentina
African Wild Ass Equus africanus Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia
Asian Wild Ass (Onager) Equus hemionus Southwestern and Central Asia
Avahi (Woolly lemur) Avahi sp. Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)
Aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)
Babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa Indonesia
Gelada Theropithecus gelada Ethiopia
Western Barred Bandicoot Perameles bougainville Australia
Desert Bandicoot Perameles eremiana Australia
Lesser Rabbit Bandicoot (Lesser Bilby) Macrotis leucura Australia
Pig-footed Bandicoot Chaeropus ecaudatus Australia
Rabbit Bandicoot (Bilby) Macrotis lagotis Australia
Banteng Bos javanicus Southeast Asia
Bulmer’s fruit bat (flying fox) Aproteles bulmerae Papua New Guinea
Bumblebee Bat Craseonycteris thonglongyai Thailand
Gray Bat Myotis grisescens Central and southeastern U.S.
Hawaiian Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus U.S. (HI)
Indiana bat Myotis sodalis Eastern and Midwestern U.S.
Lesser Long-nosed Bat Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae U.S. (AZ, NM), Mexico, Central America
Little Mariana fruit bat Pteropus tokudae Western Pacific Ocean, U.S. (Guam)
Mariana Fruit Bat (Mariana flying fox) Pteropus mariannus Western Pacific Ocean, U.S. (GU, MP)
Mexican long-nosed bat (Saussure’s long-nosed bat) Leptonycteris nivalis U.S. (NM, TX), Mexico, Central America
Ozark Big-Eared Bat Corynorhinus (Plecotus) townsendii ingens U.S. (MO, OK, AR)
Rodrigues Fruit Bat (Flying Fox) Pteropus rodricensis Indian Ocean, Rodrigues Island
Singapore Roundleaf Horseshoe Bat Hipposideros ridleyi Malaysia
Virginia big-eared bat Corynorhinus (Plecotus) townsendii virginianus U.S. (KS, FL, TX, OK)
American Black Bear Ursus americanus North America
Baluchistan Bear Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus Iran, Pakistan
Brown Bear Ursus arctos arctos Palearctic
Blue Bear Ursus arctos pruinosus China (Tibet)
Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos horribilis Holarctic
Louisiana Black Bear Ursus americanus luteolus U.S. (LA-all parishes; MS-all counties south of or touching a line from Greenville, Washington County, to Meridian, Lauderdale County; TX-all counties east of or touching a line from Linden, Cass County, SW to Bryan, Brazos County, thence SSW to Rockport, Aransas County)
Mexican Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos Holarctic
Beaver Castor fiber birulai Mongolia
Wood Bison Bison bison athabascae Canada, northwestern U.S.A
Mexican Bobcat Lynx rufus escuinapae Central Mexico
Bontebok Damaliscus pygarus (dorcas) dorcas South Africa
Bactrian Camel Camelus bactrianus Mongolia, China
Woodland Caribou (Reindeer) Rangifer tarandus caribou U.S. (AK, ID, ME, MI, MN, MT, NH, VT, WA, WI), Canada
Andean Mountain Cat Leopardus jacobitus Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Asian Golden Cat (Temmnick’s) Catopuma temminckii Nepal, China, Southeast Asia, Indonesia (Sumatra)
Black-footed Cat Felis nigripes Southern Africa
Flat-headed Cat Prionailurus planiceps Malaysia, Indonesia
Iriomote Cat Prionailurus iriomotensis Japan (Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands)
Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis India, Southeast Asia
Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata Nepal, Southeast Asia, Indonesia
Pakistan Sand Cat Felis margarita scheffeli Pakistan
Oncilla Leopardus tigrinus Costa Rica to northern Argentina
Apennine Chamois Rupicapra rupicapra ornata Italy
Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus Africa to India
Common Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes Africa
Bonobo Pan paniscus Zaire
Chinchilla Chinchilla brevicaudata boliviana Bolivia
Malabar Large-spotted Civet Viverra civettina (megaspila c.) India
Cochito (Vaquita) Phocoena sinus Mexico (Gulf of California)
Bactrian Deer Cervus elaphus bactrianus Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan
Barbary Deer Cervus elaphus barbarus Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria E
Calamianes Deer (Philippine) Axis porcinus calamianensis Philippines (Calamian Islands)
Cedros Island Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus cerrosensis Mexico (Cedros Island)
Columbian white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus leucurus U.S. (WA, OR)
Corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus Corsica, Sardinia
Eld’s Brow-antlered Deer Cervus eldi India to Southeast Asia
Formosan Sika Deer Cervus nippon taioanus Taiwan
Indochina Hog Deer Axis porcinus annamiticus Thailand, Indochina
Key deer Odocoileus virginianus clavium U.S. (Florida)
Kuhl’s deer (Bawean deer) Axis porcinus kuhli Indonesia
Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Brazil
McNeill’s deer Cervus elaphus macneilli China (Sinkiang, Tibet)
Musk deer Moschus spp. (all species) Central and eastern Asia
North China Sika Deer Cervus nippon mandarinus China (Shantung and Chihli Provinces)
Pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay
Persian fallow deer Dama mesopotamica (dama m.) Iraq, Iran
Ryukyu sika deer Cervus nippon keramae Japan (Ryukyu Islands)
Shansi sika deer Cervus nippon grassianus China (Shansi Province)
South China Sika Deer Cervus nippon kopschi Southern China
Swamp deer Cervus duvauceli India, Nepal
Visayan deer Cervus alfredi Philippines
Yarkand deer Cervus elaphus yarkandensis China (Sinkiang)
Dhole Cuon alpinus C.I.S., Korea, China, India, Southeast Asia
Dibbler Antechinus apicalis Australia
African wild dog Lycaon pictus Sub-Saharan Africa
Chinese River dolphin Lipotes vexillifer China
Indus River dolphin Platanista minor Pakistan (Indus River and tributaries)
Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus Equatorial West Africa
Dugong Dugong dugon East Africa to southern Japan, including U.S. (Trust Territories)
Jentink’s duiker Cephalophus jentinki Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire
Western giant eland Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Senegal to Côte d’Ivoire
African elephant Loxodonta africana Africa
Asian elephant Elephas maximus South-central and southeastern Asia
Black-footed ferret Mustela nigripes Western U.S., western Canada, Rose Hill
Northern swift fox Vulpes velox hebes U.S. (northern plains), Canada
San Joaquin Kit Fox Vulpes macrotis mutica U.S. (CA)
San Miguel Island fox Urocyon littoralis littoralis U.S. (CA)
Santa Catalina Island fox Urocyon littoralis catalinae U.S. (CA)
Santa Cruz Island fox Urocyon littoralis santacruzae U.S. (CA)
Santa Rosa Island fox Urocyon littoralis santarosae U.S. (CA)
Simien fox Canis simensis Ethiopia
Arabian gazelle Gazella gazella Arabian Peninsula, Palestine, Sinai
Clarke’s gazelle Ammodorcas clarkei Somalia, Ethiopia
Mhorr gazelle Gazella dama mhorr Morocco
Moroccan gazelle Gazella dorcas massaesyla Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Mountain gazelle (Cuvier’s) Gazella cuvieri Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Pelzeln’s gazelle Gazella dorcas pelzelni Somalia
Rio de Oro Dama gazelle Gazella dama lozanoi Western Sahara
Sand Gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica Jordan, Arabian Peninsula
Saudi Arabian gazelle Gazella dorcas saudiya Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Arabian Peninsula
Slender-horned gazelle Gazella leptoceros Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, Libya
Gibbons Hylobates, Nomascus, Hoolock, Symphalanges China, India, Southeast Asia
Gray Goral Naemorhedus goral East Asia
Gorillas Gorilla spp. Central and western Africa
Hispid hare Caprolagus hispidus India, Nepal, Bhutan
Swayne’s Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei Ethiopia, Somalia
Tora Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus tora Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt
Pygmy hog Sus salvanius India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim
Przewalski’s horse Equus przewalskii Mongolia, China
North Andean huemul Hippocamelus antisensis Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina
South Andean Huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus Chile, Argentina
Cabrera’s hutia Capromys angelcabrerai Cuba
Dwarf Hutia Capromys nana Cuba
Large-eared Hutia Capromys auritus Cuba
Little Earth Hutia Capromys sanfelipensis Cuba
Barbary hyena Hyaena hyaena barbara Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Brown hyena Parahyaena (Hyaena) brunnea Southern Africa
Pyrenean ibex Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Spain
Walia Ibex Capra walie Ethiopia
Black-faced impala Aepyceros melampus petersi Namibia, Angola
Indri Indri indri Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)
Jaguar Panthera onca U.S. (AZ, CA, LA, NM, TX), Mexico, Central and South America
Guatemalan jaguarundi Puma yagouaroundi fossata Mexico, Nicaragua
Gulf Coast Jaguarundi Puma yagouarondi cacomitli U.S. (TX), Mexico
Panamanian Jaguarundi Puma yagouaroundi panamensis Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama
Sinaloan Jaguarundi Puma yagouaroundi tolteca U.S. (AZ), Mexico
Fresno Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys nitratoides exilis U.S. (CA)
Giant kangaroo rat Dipodomys ingens U.S. (CA)
Morro Bay kangaroo rat Dipodomys heermanni morroensis U.S. (CA)
San Bernardino Merriam’s kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami parvus U.S. (CA)
Stephens’s Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys stephensi (incl. D. cascus) U.S. (CA) E
Tipton kangaroo rat Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides U.S. (CA) E
Tasmanian forester kangaroo Macropus giganteus tasmaniensis Australia (Tasmania)
Koala Phascolarctos cinereus Australia
Kouprey Bos sauveli Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand
Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus India, Burma, Bangladesh
Red-shanked Douc Pygathrix nemaeus Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Francois’ Langur Trachypithecus francoisi China (Kwangsi), Indochina
Gee’s Golden Langur Trachypithecus geei India (Assam), Bhutan
Gray langurs Semnopithecus spp. China (Tibet), India, Pakistan, Kashmir, Sri Lanka, Sikkim, Bangladesh
Mentawai Langur Presbytis potenziani Indonesia
Pig-tailed Langur Simias concolor Indonesia
Purple-faced Langur Trachypithecus vetulus Sri Lanka
Red lechwe Kobus leche Southern Africa
Lemurs all genera in the Lemuriformes) Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)
Leopard Panthera pardus Africa, Asia
Leopard Panthera pardus Africa, Asia
Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa Southeastern and south-central Asia, Taiwan
Snow Leopard Uncia uncia Central Asia
Spotted linsang Prionodon pardicolor Nepal, Assam, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Burma
Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica Turkey to India
Pygmy Slow Loris Nycticebus pygmaeus Indochina

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